The Scimitar oryx or scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), also known as the Sahara oryx, is a species of Oryx once widespread across North Africa which went extinct in the wild in 2000.
This antelope stands a little more than 1 metre (3.3 ft) at the shoulder. The males weigh 140–210 kg (310–460 lb) and the females weigh 91–140 kg (201–309 lb). The coat is white with a red-brown chest and black markings on the forehead and down the length of the nose. The calves are born with a yellow coat without distinguishing marks; their coats change to adult coloration at 3–12 months old.
The Scimitar oryx formed herds of mixed sexes of up to 70 members, usually guided by the bulls. They inhabited semi desert and deserts and were adapted to live in the extreme heat, with their efficient cooling mechanism and very low requirement of water.
Scimitar oryx feed on foliage, grasses, succulent plants-and plant parts during the night or early morning.
Births peak between March and October. After a gestation of eight to nine months, one calf is born. Soon after, the female has a postpartum estrus.
The Scimitar oryx was once widespread across northern Africa. Its decline began as a result of climate change, and later it was hunted extensively for its horns. Today, it is bred in captivity in special reserves in Tunisia, Morocco and Senegal and on private exotic animal ranches in the Texas hill county. In 2016 a reintroduction program was launched and currently a small herd has been successfully reintroduced in Chad.